(December 31, 1858 in Paezeriai - November 16, 1899 in Naumiestis). One of
the ideologists of the Lithuanian national movement, the writer of the
Lithuanian national anthem. In 1889-1905 he organized the publication of Varpas
(The Bell), a prohibited newspaper in Lithuanian. He guided the
ideological contents of the newspaper, and edited it occasionally. One of
the initiators of Lithuanian realistic satire, and civic and national
poetry. He wrote works of prose and poetry, publicistic and critical
articles, did translations, collected data on folklore, and arranged music.
Civic and national themes prevail in his works which criticize the
Russification policy conducted by the Russian authorities of that time,
propagate the ideals of democracy, condemn political despotism, and arouse
Lithuanian national consciousness. Besides, he was one of the most famous
Lithuanian translators at the end of the XIX c. (he translated Cain
by George Byron, The Maid of Orleans and Wi1helm Tell by
Friedrich Schiller, Mindaugas by Juliusz Slowacki, and All Souls'
Day by Adam Mickiewicz).