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Apzvalga (Apžvalga)


Apžvalga ("The Review"), biweekly Catholic journal published from 1889-96. Its full name was Žemaiczių w Lietuvos Apžvalga (The Samogitian and Lithuanian Review). The journal was published in Tilze, Lithuania Minor (Tilsit, East Prussia), and smuggled across the German - Russian frontier into Lithuania Major, occupied by the Russians, who prohibited publication in Lithuanian from 1864-1904. The printing of the journal was handled by Juozas Angrabaitis and the chief editor was Kazimieras Pakalniskis, a young Catholic priest who had previously been a curate in Zemaitija (Samogitia). Manuscripts were smuggled from Lithuania to Tilze. In seven years, 154 issues of Apžvalga were published, each with a circulation of 2,000 copies. The journal was primarily intended for and widely read by Lithuanian farmers and workers. In its first issue on Dec. 10, 1889, the periodical adopted and later maintained an unwavering and militant line against Russian rule in Lithuania, in particular against the persecution of the Roman Catholic Church. Its vehemence attracted many Lithuanian Catholics into an active struggle against. Russian oppression. One article in 1895 stated: "The nations [of the Russian Empire] will separate from each other and establish independent states, in which there will be freedom of religion and of conscience." Publication of the periodical was discontinued in 1896, when the Catholic monthly, Tevynės Sargas (Guard of the Fatherland), 1896-1904, began to be published. The men who worked on the staffs of Apžvalga and Tėvynės Sargas later pioneered the Christian Democratic movement in Lithuania.
Bibl.: Juozas Tumas, Apžvalga ir apžvalgininkai, Kaunas, 1925.

Text from the ENCYCLOPEDIA LITUANICA I-VI.  Boston, 1970-1978